How has feminist thought influenced the

Feminist Epistemology and Philosophy of Science

This generates a tendency toward idealism in both traditions. At this point, the site of epistemic privilege shifts to the group defining itself as a collective political agent. Questions may be motivated not only by the purely cognitive interest of curiosity, but by various practical interests in understanding the nature and causes of situations one judges to be problematic, and in finding out how to improve those situations.

In conclusion, the contemporary sex gender model is accurate because both sex and gender are rightly seen as social constructs inclusive of the wide spectrum of sexes and genders and in which nature and nurture are interconnected.

The assertion of a black feminist standpoint, for example, objectionably essentializes black women. Whether any particular feminist, or sexist, theory is true will depend on empirical investigation informed by epistemic norms—norms which may themselves be reformed in light of the merits of the theories they generate.

Defenders of impartiality object to the very idea of feminist science because they view it as threatening impartiality.

These kinds of questions make other kinds of knowledge salient for feminist epistemology: Psychoanalysis and Feminism and the Oedipus complex Psychoanalytic feminism and feminist psychoanalysis are based on Freud and his psychoanalytic theoriesbut they also supply an important critique of it.

The privileged standpoint is not that of women, but of feminists.

It thus can qualify as a symbolically gynocentric perspective, even if men and women do not differ in their propensity to represent moral problems in its terms, and to act accordingly. The masculine cognitive style is abstract, theoretical, disembodied, emotionally detached, analytical, deductive, quantitative, atomistic, and oriented toward values of control or domination.

To serve their critical aim, social theories must a represent the world in relation to the interests of the oppressed; b enable the oppressed to understand their problems; and c be usable by the oppressed to improve their condition.

She also critiqued the constitution for its male gendered language and questioned why women should have to abide by laws that do not specify women. According to Marxist feminists, such as Hartsock and Rose women are central to the system of reproduction—of socializing children and caring for bodies—as workers are central to the system of commodity production.

Not all bias is epistemically bad Antony Thus, Haraway shows how hypotheses in primatology and evolutionary theory depend on narrative conventions for example, casting the transition from ape to hominid as a heroic drama and tropes for example, casting primates as mirrors of human nature.

Personal knowledge of others. This was followed by Australia granting female suffrage in And it proposes perspective-shifting as a strategy for negotiating the proliferation of theories produced by differently situated women.

Haraway replies that it rejects both objectivism and relativism for the ways they let knowers escape responsibility for the representations they construct.

Any such theory will contain a definite set of terms. While these narrative conventions and tropes have rhetorical appeal, the evidence does not compel their selection. The ideology of gender remains a social construct but is not as strict and fixed. These kinds of situatedness affect knowledge in several ways.

Understanding gender, crime, and justice. The necessary and transhistorical character of this practical, instrumental mode of knowing also gives it an objective validity for all societies. Although men and women alike may acquire these skills, they are considered the peculiar responsibility of one or the other gender.

Feminist empiricists are concerned with the impact on inquiry of social practices relating to gender, race, class and other bases of inequality. Such attitudes and interests structure the cognition of those who have them. Why is it that men and women so often have dramatically divergent understandings of what happened in their sexual encounters?

The resurgence of feminist activism in the late s was accompanied by an emerging literature of concerns for the earth and spirituality, and environmentalism. When group membership is defined objectively, it is neither necessary nor sufficient for gaining access to the privileged perspective.

It embodies a skeptical sensibility that questions attempts to transcend our situatedness by appeal to such ideas as universality, necessity, objectivity, rationality, essence, unity, totality, foundations, and ultimate Truth and Reality.

It revises the ideology of sex to be a social construct which is not limited to either male or female. Such knowledge is often tacit, incompletely articulated, and intuitive.

Feminist theory

Some of this work argues that the interests in technological control that underlie the modern practice of science limit its scope and what it takes to be significant knowledge LaceyMerchantTiles Can situated emotional responses to things be a valid source of knowledge about them DiamondJaggarKellerPitts-Taylor ?

These features of critical theory raise the possibility that claims of superiority for particular theories might be based more on pragmatic than epistemic virtues HardingHartsock Masculinity and femininity can be seen as contrasting styles of performance in almost any role.

Background beliefs and worldviews. The feminine cognitive style is said to be epistemically superior because it overcomes the dichotomy between the subject and object of knowing and because an ethic of care is superior to an ethic of domination.

Women act collectively on this shared understanding in resisting the sexist representations made of them, through campaigns against sexual harassment, pornography, restrictions on reproductive freedom, and so forth.

No logical principle stops scientists from choosing different background assumptions against which to interpret their observations. InQasim Aminconsidered the "father" of Arab feminism, wrote The Liberation of Women, which argued for legal and social reforms for women.Feminism on a whole has had a positive impact on society it has been a dramatically successful social movement.

It has changed women’s expectations and perspectives on their lives. In the past, women would have to marry to gain financial security and stability. While the church has not embraced feminist ideals as quickly as the rest of the culture, feminism has not been without an influence on the Christian community.

This ideology has even changed the way many in the church view Scripture. In attempting to answer the question how has feminist thought influenced the discipline of criminology? This essay will briefly discuss the development of feminist thought.

Feminist thought has influenced the discipline of criminology in a variety of ways and as Downes and Rock ( cited by Hopkins Burke P) identified there is the female emancipation leads to crime debate. During the period of to women’s employment rate doubled and the female crime statistics also showed a significant rise.

The work of the feminist psychoanalyst and philosopher, Julia Kristeva, has influenced feminist theory in general and feminist literary criticism in particular.

From the s onwards the work of artist and psychoanalyst Bracha Ettinger has influenced literary criticism, art history and film theory. Feminist theory is the extension of feminism into theoretical, fictional, or philosophical discourse.

It aims to understand the nature of gender inequality. It examines women's and men's social roles, experiences, interests, chores, and feminist politics in a variety of fields, such as anthropology and sociology, communication, media studies.

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How has feminist thought influenced the
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