State the value of the present research; e. Use verbs instead of abstract nouns Instead of: Always identify treatments by the variable or treatment name, NOT by an ambiguous, generic name or number e.
Materials and Methods 1. This is why when you complete your draft, you should ask for as much feedback from your colleagues as possible. A good discussion will explain why your results and the whole paper is important. Notice how the substitution in red of treatment and control identifiers clarifies the passage both in the context of the paper, and if taken out of context.
Include the date s of the study e. When your paper includes more than one experiment, use subheadings to help organize your presentation by experiment. Papers, Proposals, and Presentations.
For example, did you use mouse pups or adults? Moreover, outlining the scope of your research by showing the limitations, weaknesses, and assumptions is essential and adds modesty to your image as a scientist.
Your most important goal in this section is to be as explicit as possible by providing enough detail and references. Indeed, wordiness convolutes your sentences and conceals your ideas from readers.
The updated outline will help you review the general picture of your paper, the topic, the main idea, and the purpose, which are all important for writing your introduction. Interestingly, recent studies have reported that the Materials and Methods section is the only section in research papers in which passive voice predominantly overrides the use of the active voice [ 5789 ].
Here the author assumes the reader has basic knowledge of microbiological techniques and has deleted other superfluous information. Use graphs and tables if appropriate, but also summarize your main findings in the text. The information should include: What was the design of your research? Do NOT discuss the results or speculate as to why something happened; t hat goes in th e Discussion.
However, creating a picture or an argument should not be confused with data manipulation or falsification, which is a willful distortion of data and results. When reading and listening to your paper, you are more likely to notice the places where the fluency is disrupted and where you stumble because of a very long and unclear sentence or a wrong connector.
Writing Results Section For many authors, writing the Results section is more intimidating than writing the Materials and Methods section. The best way to structure your introduction is to follow the three-move approach shown in Table 3.
Open in a separate window Now that you have expanded your outline, you are ready for the next step: Staring at an empty screen is frustrating, but your screen is not really empty: Continue with drafts After you get enough feedback and decide on the journal you will submit to, the process of real writing begins.
So do not run into the same problems as the writers of the sentences in 1: Be sure to include the hypotheses you tested, controls, treatments, variables measured, how many replicates you had, what you actually measured, what form the data take, etc. Most of the fear comes from the variation in the section.
Pour your ideas into the paper and leave revision and editing for later. You are still in your lab finishing revisions and getting ready to submit your paper. The Methods section is prone to being wordy or overly detailed.
Get as much feedback as you can, especially from non-specialists in your field. The two sentences have been combined because they are related actions. In the Introduction, you zoom in from general to specific and from the background to your research question; in the Discussion section, you zoom out from the summary of your findings to the research context, as shown in Table 4.
Furthermore, cohesion and fluency are crucial in this section. Do not show the same data in two forms data should be presented as either a table or a figure not both.
Temperature has an effect on the reaction. Effect of Smoking on Academic Performance" Sometimes a title that summarizes the results is more effective: Many universities have a writing center where graduate students can schedule individual consultations and receive assistance with their paper drafts.
When you establish the territory, you place your research in context and highlight the importance of your research topic.The Difficulties of Writing a Discussion Section.
In an ideal world, you could simply reject your null or alternative hypotheses according to the significance levels found by the statistics. That is the main point of your discussion section, but the process is usually a lot more complex than that.
WRITING A SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH ARTICLE DISCUSSION. 1. Highlight the most significant results, but don't just repeat what you've written in the Results section. How do these results relate to the original question?
Robert S. Day, How to Write and Publish a Scientific Paper, 4th edition, Oryx Press, Phoenix, When scientists start writing a research paper, they already have their files with data, lab notes with materials and experimental designs, some visuals, and tables with results.
Moreover, the evaluation of the alternative explanations might help you create a logical step to the next move of the discussion section: the research context. Sep 08, · How to Write a Scientific Paper.
Even if you are not planning to publish a scientific paper, you may be asked to write in this format for a college course or other program. Because scientific papers are written in a specific format, it is 72%(56).
Results. The results section is the part of the scientific paper around which everything else is built. The introduction describes why the results needed to be obtained, the methods how they were obtained and the discussion explains the results.
The discussion section is often considered the most important part of your research paper because this is where you: Keep the following sequential points in mind as you organize and write the discussion section of your paper: Content, and Style of a Journal-Style Scientific Paper.
Department of Biology.
Bates College; Hess, Dean R. .Download